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subordinate to military requirements and 
the national interest. 

In the present instance, there is an obvious 
effort underway to pare military costs by 
cutting away the dead wood. Among the 
6,700 military installations in this country 
and overseas there must be much of it, and 
the taxpaying public in general can but ap- 
plaud this economy movo. 

President Johnson has given his assurance, 
although it was hardly necessary, that the 
Nation’s defense posture will not be weak- 
ened. Indeed, if our overall economic struc- 
ture is bolstered, our military position will 
automatically become stronger. 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 




Wednesday, December 4, 1963 

Mr. WYMAN. Mr. Speaker, the seri- 
ousness and effectiveness of slanted pro- 
Communist propaganda was never better 
illustrated than in the sickness that 
tainted Lee Oswald’s mind. Our people 
should never forget that Oswald was an 
admitted Marxist, that by his own state- 
ments Das Kapital was his bible, class 
struggle, atheism, and the fanatical goal 
of Communist world domination his 

Not enough has been written concern- 
ing the Fair Flay for Cuba Committee. 
The tentacles of this committee are far 
reaching. One of my constituents, the 
distinguished writer and former member 
of the Communist Party, Herbert Phil- 
brick, of Rye, N.H., has written about 
these tentacles in an excellent article 
appearing in the December issue of Dol- 
lar Hollar called “The Roots Of Tragedy.” 
I commend the reading of this article to 
all who seek to know and understand the 
full scope of what is involved in the awful 
deed of assassination of an American 

The article follows: 

The Roots of Tragedy 

(By Herbert A. Philbrick) 

The obituary of President John P. Kennedy 
was written in 1961, by a member of a pro- 
Castro organization calling itself the “Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee.” It appears in 
volume No. 8, page 429, of the Senate Judi- 
ciary Committee document entitled "Castro’s 
Network in the United States (Pair Play for 
Cuba Committee) .” 

It reads as follows: “Fidel has made it. 
Kennedy has muffed it. If Fidel Castro were 
to pass out of the picture tomorrow, it would 
not change this die. It has been cast. 
Throughout South America people will be 
building statutes honoring Fidel Castro long 
after Kennedy has become the brand name 
for somebody’s baked cookies or a new kind 
of swiss cheese.’’ 

Less than 6 months after the Senate In- 
ternal Security Subcommittee had published 
its report, Lee Harvey Oswald, his mind and 
soul contaminated by the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee filth, gunned down the President 
of the United States. 

The brutal, senseless slaying of the Pres 
dent will go down in history as an evei 
marked by bitter irony. 

How ironic — and yet, how unsurprising- 
that the very Marxist, materialist, atheis 
leftwing forces, the cheerleaders of the r( 

cent Supreme Court ruling against school 
prayer, should have been the very forces 
which directly instigated the assassination 
of President Kennedy. All over the Nation, 
the people were urged to pray; so far as I 
know, there was no admonition that we pray 
except and unless you were in a public school. 

How ironic that White House officials had 
ordered the Dallas police, in advance of the 
President’s visit, to set up a sharp watch over 
all suspected rightwing extremists, failing to 
realize, as they have consistently refused to 
recognize, that the greater danger to this 
Nation is from the extreme left. 


It is too late to correct the disastrous 
events of November 1963. But it is not too 
late to determine why the tragedy happened, 
and to take steps to insure that further acts 
of violence are not carried out by the Castro 
supporters in this country. 

The nub of the question, of oourse, lies 
with the interlocking relationship of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee: the self- 
avowed Marxist, Lee H. Oswald; and the 
Communist International. 

Of the role played by the Communist con- 
spiracy, there is no question. At its annual 
national convention held in New York City 
in December 1959 the CPUSA gave highest 
priority to a resolution calling for a “Hands 
Off Cuba” policy. Henceforth the basic Red 
objective was to do anything and everything 
to keep the Castro Communist government 
in power in Cuba. 

Immediately thereafter, the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee front was established. 
However, it was not an ordinary front. It 
was, instead, a coalition group which in- 
cluded not only members of the Communist 
Party, but also members of the Socialist 
Workers Party— the Trotskyists— together 
with the usual assortment of "fellow trav- 
elers”; i.e., those who, although not discip- 
lined members of the Soviet apparatus itself, 
still were in agreement with the Communist 
policy to keep “hands off Cuba’’ and to sup- 
port Castro. 

The inclusion of fellow travelers was not 
unusual; but the coalition between the 
Communists and the Trotskyists was both 
astonishing and alarming. For years, the 
Stalinists and the Trotskyists had been bit- 
ter, bloody enemies, leading to the assassina- 
tion of Leon Trotsky by Soviet agents in 1940. 

Members of the Trotsky wing of the Marx- 
ist movement consider themselves to be 
genuine Communists (they prefer the word 
“Marxist,” to distinguish themselves from 
the “Stalinists”) adhere to the principles of 
Marx, Lenin, and Engels; they agree that the 
Communist system must be extended over 
the entire world and that capitalism must be 
destroyed; but they believe that Stalin was 
much too soft on capitalism. The Trotskyist 
teachings, therefore, are much more savage 
and extreme than “orthodox” communism. 
However, for years they were considered noisy 
but harmless, because they did not have the 
backing of any major foreign power. 

However, in 1956 Nikita Khrushchev 
denounced Stalin’s liquidation of the Trot- 
skyists, and instructed the Communists 
throughout the world to establish united 
front relationships whenever expedient, re- 
gardless of differing views. 

Much to my astonishment, as I know it was 
with most students of the Communist move- 
ment, the Socialist Workers Party accepted 
the offer. What happened is recorded in the 
Annual Report of the Houso Committee on 
Un-American Activities for the Year 1961: 
the committee expressed concern over the 
’ ultra-revolutionary Trotskyists movement’s 
recent growth in power and influence,” and 
stated : “The improved fortunes of the Trot- 
skyist movement in the United States are at- 
tributed to the cooperation Trotskyists have 
received from the U.S. Communist Party * • * 
collaboration of Trotskyists and Communist 
Party members was strikingly illustrated in 
the operations of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 

mittee.” Inevitably, the teaching of extreme 
hatred and contempt, characteristic of the 
"leftwing” Communists, the Socialist Work- 
ers Party, became an earmark of the Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee. 

The FPCC was launched in early 1960. Ac- 
cording to the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee reports, six men were involved 
in its founding; Carleton Beals, Waldo Frank, 
Richard Gibson, Robert Tabor, Alan Sagner, 
and Charles Santos-Buch. Waldo Frank was 
designated chairman; Carleton Beals, co- 
chairman. An FPCC pamphlet reproduced 
in the Senate report lists the National Spon- 
sors as Carleton Beals, W. E. B. DuBois, Waldo 
Frank, Richard Gibson, Alexander Meikle- 
John, C. Wright Mills, Harvey O’Connor, Linus 
Pauling, Jean Paul Sarte, I. F. Stone, Robert 
Tabor, and Willard Uphaus (with a foot- 
note reading “list incomplete”) . 

From the very beginning, the FPCC was 
given financial backing and support by the 
Castro Communist dictatorship. Dr. Santos- 
Buch, one of the founders, testified under 
oath that the group had cooked up a story 
that if they were ever questioned as to the 
source of their funds, they were to claim 
it came from friends. If further questioned, 
however, they were to plead the first amend- 
ment — the guarantee of free speech under 
the Constitution. Dr. Santos-Buch, how- 
ever, showing great courage, told the truth 
when questioned by the Senate committee. 

A check for $3,500, he revealed, had been 
made out by Raulita Roa, a delegate of the 
Cuban dictatorship to the United Nations, 
payable to a “Manuel Bisbee,” the chief per- 
manent delegate from Castro Cuba to the 
U.N. Bisbee endorsed the check; Roa then 
cashed it in the U.N. building, and the money 
was then deposited in the Chemical Bank 
New York Trust Co. 

That the FPCC flourished is indicated by 
some of the checks drawn on their bank 

December 27, 1960— $8,613 (for cash). 
December 30, 1960 — $19,000 (for cash) 
January 17, 1961— $15,680 (payable to Cu- 
bana De Aviacion). 

January 19, 1961— $440 (to A. Nash) . 
January 25, 1961— $600 (to Lillian Gruber) . 
By April 1961, the FPCC was boasting 
"more than 6,000 members with 27 chapters 
In the United States and student councils 
on more than 40 university chapters in the 
United States and Canada.” 

The Senate committee also uncovered large 
deposits to the FPCC account. Introduced 
into the record by Mr. J. G. Sourwine, Chief 
Counsel for the Senate Committee, was a list 
of 55 $100 bills, deposited on April 21, 1961. 
Mr. Sourwine asked: “Do you have any idea 
where the money came from?” The wit- 
ness, Richard Gibson, replied: “It came from 
contributions.” Mr. Sourwine exclaimed 
with astonishment; "Contributions— in hun- 
dred dollar bills?— 55 of them?" Gibson re- 
plied, “That is all I know. I don't know 
where the money came from and I did not 
ask." Gibson was, at the time, the na- 
tional executive secretary of FPCC. 

Gibson also testified that he did not know 
that Robert Tabor, a cofounder of FPCC and 
the first executive secretary of the organiza- 
tion, had a criminal record; that he did not 
know Tabor had pleaded guilty and served 
sentences of imprisonment for armed robbery, 
auto larceny, and kidnaping. 

Besides the unusual — and dangerous — coa- 
lition between the Communists and the Trot- 
skyists, however, two other circumstances 
made the picture more ominous. 

First, the House and Senate investigating 
committees found evidence of great Influence 
by members of the FPCC, Its supporters and 
contributors, in the field of communications; 
radio, television, magazines, newspapers, and 
book publishers. ‘ ' 

Robert Tabor and Richard Gibson were 
both reporters and newswriters for CBS in 
New York: Tabor, in fact, had made a num- 

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not only to America, but England, the world, 
and peace. 

I b till find It hard to believe and muet 
hang on to the thought that God moves In 
strange ways, otherwise I would find It very 
difficult to go on believing in God because 
this all seems so very poin tless. Perhaps tills 
Is one of the supreme sacrifices which will 
cause all peoples of the world to move to- 
ward better undertandlng. I sincerely hope 

Thinking of you. 

Fewer Store* To Share the Pie 






Wednesday, December 4, 1963 

Mr. DENT. Mr. Speaker, we see every 
day new evidence ol the dangerous trend 
toward retail monopoly In this country. 
We see small merchants being killed off 
by large so-called discounters, not be- 
cause they offer the consumer better 
service or more efficient operations, but 
because they engage in often deceptive 
merchandising and advertising tactics 
aimed at eliminating competition. 

The quality stabilization bill, spon- 
sored by a distinguished group of my 
estimable colleagues in both Houses of 
Congress, would permit the small re- 
tailer to demonstrate anew his vitality 
and his efficiency. Unless it Is passed, 
his fate is clear: because he will not en- 
gage in shabby techniques, such as run- 
ning entire departments at a loss in 
order to build traffic, he will become a 
part of our vanished scene. And we 
shall have placed the consumer in the 
hands of a few, a very few, giant mer- 
chandisers. We shall have created less 
competition, not more; have fewer stores, 
not a healthy variety ; we shall have an 
undue concentration of economic power 
in the hands of a few. 

The evidence is again before us in the 
form of a survey published in Business 
Week magazine. Just one item from 
it is shocking evidence of the curtail- 
ment of competition which we have been 
witnessing: in the past 10 years, the 
number of radio-TV stores has dropped 
from 100,000 to 19,000. How has this 
happened? It is the result of a policy of 
many predators who run their radio-TV 
departments at a deliberate loss just to 
build traffic. What has happened to the 
brand names which have been cheap- 
ened in this manner ? Their reputations 
have been hurt, their markets have been 
killed. What has happened to the 81.000 
independent businessmen and their em- 
ployees? Their energies have been lost 
to the community. 

Mr. Speaker, under unanimous con- 
sent, I include this significant article 
from the November 6 issue of Business 
Week magazine in the Congressional 
Record : 

Fewer Stores To Share the Pie — They Get 
Bigger but Decrease in Number as Dis- 
counters, Chains Squeeze "Little Guys” 
The fates and fortunes of the Nation's con- 
sumer goods makers rest in the hands of 

fewer and fewer retailers every year. And the 
character of those retailers Is changing. 

According to the 10th National Sample 
Census of Retail Distribution, conducted by 
Audits & Surveys Co., there are now 1,867,- 
280 retail establishments of all kinds In the 
continental United States. This Is a gain of 
less than 1 percent over 1002, despite an esti- 
mated 5 percent Increase In retail sales and 
a 4 percent jump In population There Is 
now only one store for every 102 persons; 
last year there was one store per 100. 
behind the change 
The reasons for the change; 

Stores are still getting bigger, and large 
chain units are squeezing out smaller Inde- 
pendents. The number of food stores, for 
example, hae dropped 0.8 percent, while drug- 
stores Increased only 0.2 percent. 

The discounters and other mass merchan- 
disers are still hurting certain lines or busi- 
ness. The number of appliance stores fell 3 
percent, while radlo-TV stores, which num- 
bered 100.000 a decade ago, dropped 3.2 per- 
cent from last year to R low of 19,000 estab- 

The mobility conferred on the population 
by the automobile Is changing a lot of 
things. Furniture stores dropped a sicken- 
ing 10.8 percent, and the loss Is mostly In 
the smaller cities. Families tend to drive 
to the nearest big city to get variety — 
both in price and styling. The same Is true 
of department storeB, which lost 2.4 percent. 
The outlets that really Buffered were the 
small stores In small towns. 

Fashions change, and retail distribution 
changes with them. The number of shoe 
stores decUned 3.6 percent because of the 
popularity of leisure and sport shoes — loaf- 
ers and sneakers, for example — that don't 
have to be fitted. A host of other retail 
outlets, from variety stores to haberdashers, 
has moved Into this market. Of the total 
gain of 12,274 establishments of all types, 
gasoline service stations alone accounted for 
over 5,000, reflecting the trend away from 
economy carB toward the bigger, heavier gas 

The linos of retail specialty are blurring. 
In the lean days of the compact car. gas sta- 
tions Installed tire and battery departments 
at a rast clip In order to build volume and 
proflts. Today, the tire, battery, and acces- 
sory outlets are feeling the competition: 
Their number declined 2.6 percent this year. 
The market Is beginning to stay home. 
Solomon Dutka, president of Audits & Sur- 
veys, sees a long-term movement away from 
store shopping altogether, toward catalog 
salcB, telephone sales, mall order sales, and 
door-to-door ln-home selling. 


There Is one bright note, however, for the 
small retailer. He seems to have a future 
In lines where service and expertise Is at 
least as Important as the product. The one 
class of shoe store that Ib Increasing Is the 
pediatric shoe store— where fitting the shoes 
U all Important. By the same token, gour- 
met groceries are on the rise, and so are 
camera, jewelry, sporting goods, and bobby 

Oh yes. there are more liquor stores, too. 

Hon. Homer Thornberry 






Wednesday, December 18, 1963 
Mr. O'HARA of Illinois. Mr. 8pcaker, 
Homer Thornberry leaves this body with 

the warm friendship of all his colleagues. 
The qualities of mind and of heart that 
have established his preeminence in this 
Chamber, and have instilled among us 
a respect, admiration, and affection for 
him in the highest measure, will make 
a contribution of immeasurable rich- 
ness to the Federal bench of this Nation. 

Do We Hear an Echo? 






Friday, December 13, 1963 

Mr. ROGERS of Florida. Mr. Speaker, 
much as has been said and written about 
the economy moves being taken by the 
Defense Department In closing some 
military posts around the country. Palm 
Beach County experienced a similar ac- 
tion in 1659, and while hardships did 
result, they were of short duration. To- 
day the area is stronger than ever before 
In its history. 

The Palm Beach Post commented on 
this editorially December 14, and because 
they speak from the same experience, I 
ask that this editorial be printed at this 
point in the Record: 

Do We Hear an Echo? 

The loud cries emanating from Congress- 
men and from State and local officials, over 
the proposed shutdown of military bases, 
sound a little bit like an echo to people of 
this and surrounding communities. 

We went through the same wringer during 
the period from 1957, when the Air Force 
announced It would close down Its Military 
Air Transport Service base here, and 1859, 
when It actually closed down, and a $20 mil- 
lion payroll left town. 

Now the Pentagon 6ays It will deactivate 26 
military bases In 14 States during the next 
year, and studies are underway which prob- 
ably will result In the elimination of several 
others. Subsequent trimming of the military 
budget may even Involve some of the big 
navy yards, such as those at Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and San Francisco. 

The immediate reaction of the States and 
localities involved, not unexpectedly, was an 
appeal to their Congressmen for legislation 
to reverse or at least slow down the action. 
Appeals also have been made directly to 
President Johnson. And no doubt there will 
be many hardship pleas heard from the com- 
munities Involved. 

They have our sympathy, up to a point. 
Sudden loss of a military base is or can be 
a staggering economic blow. 

The MATS installation at Palm Beach Air 
Force Base, for Instance, was credited with 
providing this area with a stable year-round 
economy. Before It was established here In 
1951, the IocrI business Index went up and 
down like a yo-yo with alternate summer 
and winter seasons. 

But while the military payroll eliminated 
the summer slump, It turned out In the long 
run to be something less than an unmlxed 
blessing. We came to depend on It as our 
major Industry, oblivious to the fact that It 
might be withdrawn at any time for good and 
sufficient reasons of military necessity. Fed- 
eral economy, or political expediency. 

Its eventual departure In 1959 was Indeed 
a blow. But the blow was softened by a de- 
veloping Industrial economy and the realiza- 
tion that local Interests must of necessity be 

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ber of trips for CBS into Cuba, where he had 
conducted highly flattering radio and tele- 
vision Interviews with The Beard. Waldo 
Frank, who admitted under oath that he had 
been paid $26,000 by the Castro government 
to write a book about Cuba, has authored 
some 35 or more books; they have received 
an enormous amount of praise in the New 
York Times book reviews. Carleton Beals 
not only wrote for the extreme left “Nation,” 
but also testified that he wrote a number of 
articles for the highly respected “Christian 
Century.” Lyle Stuart, one of the first mem- 
bers of the New York chapter of FPCC 
boasted a publishing business grossing over 
$1 million a year. A senior editor of Simon 
and Shuster was advertised in a leftwing 
publication as the chief speaker at an FPCC 
meeting. An FPCC rally in Philadelphia ad- 
vertised Mr. James Higgins, editor of the 
York (Pa.) Gazette & Daily as the speaker, 
to be held at the Philadelphia Ethical So- 
ciety. Kenneth Tynan, a drama critic for 
the New York magazine and British TV pro- 
ducer, wrote a blistering article for the afflu- 
ent Harper’s magazine, lampooning the Sen- 
ate investigation of the FPCC, in which he 
falsified the questions asked by the Senate 
committee as well as belittling the damaging 

How much influence the many authors, 
writers, and newscasters affiliated with FPCC 
in one way or another had in suppressing the 
truth about Castro’s network in the United 
States will probably never be known; but 
Senator Thomas Dodd wrote, in his book 
"Freedom and Foreign Power,” that when 
there are movements like the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee waiting to be exposed, "the 
press lies dormant,” and the “reports of the 
committees are frequently ignored or burled.” 


Warning after warning was issued concern- 
ing the danger, power, and menace of the 
FPCC. Mr. J. Edgar Hoover said, in the 
FBI annual report for 1901, that “FBI in- 
vestigations have shown that the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee has been heavily infil- 
trated by the Communist Party and the 
Socialist Workers Party, and these parties 
have actually organized some chapters of 
the committee.” Again this year, in the 
fiscal 1963 report, Mr. Hoover pointed to “the 
discovery by FBI agents of a large cache of 
weapons, explosives, and incendiary devices 
in the hands of a group of pro-Castro Cubans 
who intended to create panic and destroy 
industrial sites in and around New York 

Earlier this year, Congressman William C. 
Cramer, from the 12th District of Florida, 
testified that “it is obvious that additional 
legislation is needed — particularly in view of 
the Justice Department’s attitude indicating 
that it is difficult to prosecute these violators 
under present laws.” 


But the third — and possibly the most 
dangerous of all — is the absolutely vicious, 
vitrolic content of the FPCC propaganda 
attack against the U.S. Government, laws, 
and leaders. Picture, if you will, Lee Harvey 
Oswald, in the confines of his tiny room in 
Dallas, Tex., feeding his sick soul upon utter- 
ances such as these — 

“Some Senators sit in Washington, ugly 
men in an ugly city, measuring out their 
lives in cracker talk and municipal bonds; 
measuring their own importance in sensa- 
tional headlines. Writhing in the excretion 
of their own words * * * growling questions 
that are accusations; spewing yellow bubbles 
of anger. * * * The State Department was 
still rattling its sabers. The CIA was still 
financing Batistianos and cutthroats and 
rapists and killers and thieves,” 

"Washington is rolling the drums of 

"The United States continues to bayonet 
the peace.” 

“Thrusting U.S. armed and trained terror- 
ists onto Cuban soil to murder men, women, 
and children, Washington violates every hu- 
man law.” 

"The United States is a cruel aggressor, 
bent on mayhem.” 

“I heard the Voice of America spewing 

“The people were furious (with anti-Com- 
munlsts) and wanted their blood.” 

FPCC propaganda constantly implies that 
treason toward the United States is justifi- 
able. Typical FPCC statements : 

"We denounce before the world the inter- 
vention of our Government in Cuba’s do- 
mestic affairs. If this be treason, we stand 
condemned. If our Government’s activities 
are, as we believe, illegal and immoral, then 
we as a nation stand condemned.” 

“As for me, I would rather see Cuba Com- 
munist than an American colony. If Cuba 
were invaded, I would aid Cuba. If this be 
treason, may a Carnegie study make the most 
of it.” 

Ideas not dangerous, you say? Perhaps to 
rational people the hate propaganda from 
the poison pens of the Castro network in 
the United States has little effect. But what 
about the bearded, beatnik followers of the 
FPCC? What about Lee Harvey Oswald? 
If they believe the depraved propaganda of 
the FPCC — and some of them obviously do — 
they must believe the world was done a favor 
when one of their members pulled the trigger 
of a high-powered gun in November 22, 1903. 

But all is not evil to the FPCC. Only the 
United States 1 b evil. A gun in the hands of 
an American patriot is a horrible machine 
of imperialism. A gun in the hands of 
Castro is a thing of beauty, a weapon for 
liberation. Thus, Robert Tabor, in the ex- 
tremist publication the Nation, wrote — 

"Cynics were soon disappointed. Even be- 
fore Fidel reached Havana, the noble noises 
of the Fidelistas were echoed by the crash of 
revolutionary rifles as the first and worst war 
criminals, notorious torturers and mass mur- 
derers of the Batista regime died before fir- 
ing squads.” 

Did not Lee Harvey Oswald, crouched in a 
dark window of a warehouse in Dallas, see 
himself holding in his grasp a “revolutionary 
rifle”? Were not the three, sharp shots 
which rang out in DallaB on November 22, 
in the ears of Lee Harvey Oswald, “noble 
noises of the Fidelistas”? And did not the 
bullets sped on their way, in the eyes of Lee 
Harvey Oswald seek out “a cruel aggressor, 
bent on mayhem”? 

The great tragedy of Lee Harvey Oswald, 
which became in a few split seconds a trag- 
edy for us all, was that he believed the awful 
words of Robert Tabor, former CBS newsman 
and' later head of the Fair Play for Cuba 

And the greater, ironic tragedy is that 
while Lee Harvey Oswald took the words of 
Tabor seriously, many of the advisers to the 
President did not. 

Why Calm Can Help 


5 OF 




Tuesday, December 10, 1963 

Mr. CUNNINGHAM. Mr. Speaker, 
the following editorial appeared in the 
Omaha World-Herald December 14. I 
am inserting It in the Record as I believe 
it would be of interest to the Members of 

Why Calm Can Help 

Page 1 of several recent editions of the 
World-Herald was dominated by sobering 
news stories : 

“Governor Morrison said he would press 
investigation of threats against a Cozad 
School Board official and her family. She 
had resigned after an anonymous letter say- 
ing ‘it’s too bad there is not a Lee Oswald in 
Cozad.’ The FBI also is investigating.” 

“Omaha postal authorities conferred with 
police about the possibility that an Omaha 
man whose house contained an arsenal of live 
bombs and hand grenades may have mailed 
some disguised as Christmas gifts.” 

Not all the madness in America is centered 
in Dallas. There are twisted minds and po- 
tential killers in many communities, and ter- 
rible events such as those which occurred in 
Dallas last month seem to cause latent ma- 
levolence to ferment. 

As we have said in these columns before, 
we believe the tone and pitch of public con- 
troversy have contributed to the irrational 
atmosphere in which terrible deeds are per- 
petrated and in which threats of violence are 
often heard. 

This is true of political debate, which too 
often degenerates into abuse. It is some- 
times true of religious controversy, even at a 
time when responsible men and women pride 
themselves on the signs that the major re- 
ligions of the Western World are moving ever 
closer together. It is not infrequently true 
of discussions of racial problems. 

It can be argued, and many are so arguing, 
that madmen we have always with us and 
that the soft voice of reason In examination 
and debate has no effect upon them and will 
not deter them from violent acts. 

Yet all of us know, as certainly as such 
things can be known, that calm and rational 
discussion does not Inflame whereas violent 
talk sometimes breeds violent and Irrational 

If every reasonable person keeps his voice 
down he will be contributing to the restora- 
tion of a calm and agreeable climate, 

Quality Stabilization 






Wednesday, December 4, 1963 

Mr. DENT. Mr. Speaker, so much 
has been said and written about quality 
stabilization that I feel it is time for the 
retailer — the man on the firing line — to 
speak out. Then my distinguished col- 
leagues can weigh what they have to say 
against the testimony of the so-called 
experts, officials, bureaucrats and others 
who talk so blatantly about competition 
in spite of the fact that they have never 
operated a retail establishment of their 

Considerable testimony in support of 
this legislation has been given by indi- 
vidual retailers. Also, it is no mere coin- 
cidence that the estimable gentlemen on 
both sides of the aisle who have spon- 
sored this measure include many who are 
themselves thoroughly familiar with re- 
tail operations and know from personal 
experience the difficulties of the market- 

Quality stabilization, in addition, has 
the support of many great trade associa- 
tions representing thousands of retail- 

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eis. One retail industry — retail jew- 
elry — has made a survey which shows 
overwhelming support of the Quality 
stabilization bill. 

The thousands of small business, like 
the retail jeweler, which are the life- 
blood of our communities, are locally 
owned and have helped our towns to 
grow, are inherently efficient establish- 
ments, able to complete vigorously, and 
anxious to do so. They do not ask for 
legislation which will shelter them from 
the rigors of competition. They ask for 
a climate hi which true competition will 
be fostered, in which their creative 
energies will be unshackled, and in which 
their inherent efficiency can again be 
made apparent. 

We have come to the retail jeweler for 
our engagement ring and we have trusted 
him to give us fair value. We have 
bought our wedding ring from him. Wc 
have bought gifts for our babies and 
later for our school-age children; we 
have turned to him for graduation gifts, 
and for gifts for wives and parents. We 
have seen him operate effectively. Wc 
have seen proof of his efficiency in the 
way in which his store has prospered, in 
the way in which his family has flour- 
ished as part of community life. 

Suddenly, that inherently efficient re- 
tailer has been faced with a rapacious 
foe, raiding the community for quick 
profits for his out-of-town operation, 
making no contributions, but merely 
draining the vital elements out of the 
town and Its people. He has done so by 
using the lurid come-on by deliberately 
taking losses In brand-name Items so 
that he could then unload onto the peo- 
ple a host of shoddy, overpriced items, 
marked up to compensate for the calcu- 
lated loss he takes on trademarks used 
to enlarge traffic. Suddenly, that in- 
herently efficient retailer, along with 
thousands of others, is forced to the wall. 
This not only Is a blow to a once civi- 
cally active citizen, his family and his 
employees but. more Important, to the 
hundreds of customers who had come to 
know and respect him for his honesty, 
efficiency and service. 

The quality stabilization bill would 
once again give the retailer a chance to 
compete successfully and to show his 
efficiency — to restore an active citizen to 
the community. This clearly is the view 
of the Jeweler himself, a3 expressed in 
his trade magazine, the Jewelers’ Cir- 
cular-Keystone of September 1963. Mr. 
Speaker I have unanimous consent to 
have excerpts of this survey printed In 
the Congressional Record: 

Quality Stabilization 
(Millions of words have been written and 
spoken about the proposed law on quality 
stabilization. Politicians, trade spokesmen 
and Government agencies all have stated 
their cases. But what about the retail 
Jeweler? How does he feel? This article 
gives hlB point of view and tells why ho 
thinks this bill will help him.) 

Someone up there on Capitol Hill likes the 
Jeweler after all. To the delight of many 
jewelers and the dismay of their cut-price 
competitors, a House of Representatives com- 
mittee has recommended passage of a quality 
stabilization blH. 

After detailed public hearings in May and 
June, the committee recently Issued Its ver- 

dict on the need for legislation. Here. In 
part. Is what It said: 

"The reported bill is essential to the sur- 
vival of hundreds of thousands of smRll, 
Independent businessmen — the corner drug- 
gist, the Jeweler, the hardware merchant, the 
electric appliance dealer, the bookstore deal- 
er. etc. 

"These small merchants are being hard 
pressed by competitors who sell highly ad- 
vertised nationally branded merchandise at 
very low prices, often below coet. In order 
to drive other merchants out of busi- 
ness. * • *" 

Briefly, the proposed legislation would 
allow manufacturers of brandname merchan- 
dise to establish retail prices. Alley would 
have the right to withhold goods from any 
retailer who changed these prices, who used 
the goods In bait advertising or who pub- 
lished misrepresentations about the goods. 
The bUl is hedged with certain quallllcatlons. 
the most Important being that the proposed 
law would operate only if the manufacturer 
Is selling In a market where competitive 
goods sre freely available to the public. 

Clearly, one committee's recommendation 
doesn't make a law but informed opinion 
Inside and outside Congress seems to be mov- 
ing closer and closer to the view that a 
quality stabilization bill will be passed, In 
spite of some determined haggling In the 

* • • • » 

The Jewelry Industry, through such organ- 
izations as Retail Jewelers of America, the 
National Wholesale Jewelers Association and 
the Manufacturing Jewelers & Silversmiths 
of America, is among those on record in sup- 
port of the bill. To find out how individual 
jewelers felt about the proposed legislation 
and how they believed passage of a quality 
stabilization law would affect their opera- 
tions, we asked members of JC-K's retail 
panel for their comments. 

Two reactions stood out. First, almost 
one panelist In three made no comment. 
Second, or those who did comment. 8 out of 
10 support the bill. One In ten said the bill 
would make little or no difference in his 
operation and one in ten opposed the bill. 

These figures Indicate very strong support 
for the proposed legislation. The clear feel- 
ing Is that quality stabilization will help the 
retail Jewelry industry. • • • 

From Indiana: “It should Improve our 
buslnes for It will give a stability to prices 
lacking at the present time. II the law la 
passed and the right manulacturers elect to 
operate under the law, we should bo able to 
sell electric shavers and appliances again. 
The sale of watches, sliver, and other dis- 
count Items also should be much better if 
the key manufacturers choose to operate 
under the law." This Jeweler Is not hopeful 
about the law's chance* of passing. • • • 

From New York State: "• * * I would be a 
good supporter of any manufacturer who 
would take advantage of quality stabiliza- 
tion and return to the normal channels of 
trade. We have had to drop many profitable 
lines because the discount houses have been 
selling items for less than we can purchase 

• • * Enforcement of a quality stabiliza- 
tion law worries a number of Jewelers. "If 
they put teeth Into the law and the manu- 
facturers enforce it. I think It will bring 
back confidence In name brand Items,” de- 
clares a New Hampshire retailer. “If price 
cutting is allowed, the law won't help a bit. 

I hope that It Is truly enforced. It will help 
the reputable retailer and enable him to 
handle merchandise profltably. It wlil stop 
the use of an Item as a loss leader. Every- 
thing depends on the proper enforcement.” 

* * * The scope of the law also raises 
questions. "Quality stabilization would 
definitely help our profit picture." notes 
an Illinois panelist, "provided It Is passed as 

a national law that can be enforced. Loop- 
holes such as States' options, as In the pre- 
ent fair trade laws, would weaken Its value 
to us. We are In a border city In our State 
with a neighbor, Missouri, which Is quite 
anti-fair trade." 

It was this Issue of States rights amend- 
ments which angered and shocked supporters 
of an earlier quality stabilization bill. This 
bill was cleared to the House calendar last 
year but It arrived so late that It died with 
the final sessions of the 87th Congress. Fur- 
thermore, when It was cleared by the House 
Commerce Committee, an amendment was 
tacked on which would have made the bill 
operable only In those States which adopted 
special legislation to supplement the Federal 

In the current bill, the Commerce Com- 
mittee once again has added a States rights 
amendment but it carries far leas sting for 
the bill's supporters. It specifies that 
manufacturers would have the right to act 
against any retailer not following manu- 
facturers' established retail prices except in 
those States which passed legislation pro- 
hibiting the manufacturer from such action. 

The difference In these two amendments 
is clear. In one case the Federal law would 
have been operable only following special 
action by the Individual States: In the oth- 
er case the Federal law would be operable 
everywhere unless the individual State took 
special action to set the Federal law aside. 

Some of the Immediate and tangible bene- 
fits Jewelers would get from enactment of 
a quality stabilization law were touched on 
already: better prices and hence more profit, 
an Improved flow of quality goods, oppor- 
tunity to handle certain merchandise made 
unprofitable by discounter competition.* * * 

A certain number of Jewelers outside Wis- 
consin also oppose the legislation. The 
main argument Is that the existence of es- 
tablished retail prices offers a direct Invi- 
tation to discount operations. As an Ala- 
bama panelist puts it: "If there Is no ‘es- 
tablished price,’ ‘list price,’ ‘nationally ad- 
vertised price' or whatever you call it, there 
is nothing to discount." What these retail- 
ers overlook, of course, 1a that passage of 
the bill would outlay discounting of manu- 
facturers' retail prices. The implication 
seems to be that discounters would some- 
how manage to get around the law. 

Panelists supporting quality stabilization 
see the picture from just the opposite di- 
rection : to them passage of the law provides 
protection from discounters. "This law Is 
beneficial In every way,” states an Ohio 
panelist. “We will not be beaten over the 
head with cut prices on nationally adver- 
tised merchandise. We will once again re- 
gain our status as legitimate merchants in- 
stead of being showcases for discount opera- 

A New York State Jeweler adds this com- 
ment: “The law should be beneficial by 
making competitive claims, descriptions, and 
qualities more truthful. People who are 
misled by many existing practices would be 
able to better compare quality, value and 
service. In these fields our Btore should 
stand out." 

Other jewelers see the proposed law wip- 
ing out the loss leader, a competitive gim- 
mick against which the small store has al- 
most no answer. Still others see the law 
giving a welcome injection to the economy 
by stabilizing prices and generally Increasing 
Jewelers’ business. Notes a California panel- 
ist: "Through deceptive price advertising 
and price cutting of brand name merchan- 
dise the consumer and the retailer have lost 
faith In many manufacturers, resulting In 
loss of sales which In turn means loss of 

A West Virginia Jeweler who likes the bill 
says: "It means small appliances can ba 
handled profltably, also shavers which al- 
most vanished from Jewelry stores. Malnte- 

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